Baroda Bible Club
 
Chronology
 
Is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:1; 33:38; 1 Kings 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (1 Kings 15:1, 9, 25, 33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from Exile (Ezra 3:8).

Hence in constructing a system of Biblical chronology, the plan has been adopted of reckoning the years from the ages of the patriarchs before the birth of their firstborn sons for the period from the Creation to Abraham. After this period other data are to be taken into account in determining the relative sequence of events.

See table, as to the patriarchal period, there are three principal systems of chronology: (1) that of the Hebrew text, (2) that of the Septuagint version, and (3) that of the Samaritan Pentateuch.

Hebrew
Text

Septuagint
Version

Samaritan Pentateuch



Patriarch

Lived years before birth of first son

Lived after birth of first son

Total life

Lived years before birth of first son

Lived after birth of first son

Total life

Lived years before birth of first son

Lived after birth of first son

Total life

Adam

130

800

930

230

700

930

130

800

930

Seth

105

807

912

205

707

912

105

807

912

Enos

90

815

905

190

715

905

90

815

905

Cainan

70

840

910

170

740

910

70

840

910

Mahalaleel

65

830

895

165

730

895

65

830

895

Jared

162

800

962

162

800

962

62

785

947

Enoch

65

300

365

165

200

365

65

300

365

Methuselah

187

782

969

187

782

969

67

653

720

Lamech

182

595

777

188

565

753

53

600

653

From Adam to the birth of Noah



1056

 

 



1662

 

 



707

 

 

From birth of Noah to the Flood



600

 

 



600

 

 



600

 

 

From Adam to the Flood


1656

 

 


2262

 

 


1307

 

 

 

The Samaritan and the Septuagint have considerably modified the Hebrew chronology. This modification some regard as having been wilfully made, and to be rejected. The same system of variations is observed in the chronology of the period between the Flood and Abraham. See table following:

 

Hebrew

Septuagint

Samaritan

From the birth of Arphaxad, 2 years after the flood, to the birth of Terah.



220



1000



870

From the birth of Terah to the birth of Abraham


130


70


72

 

The Septuagint fixes on seventy years as the age of Terah at the birth of Abraham, from Gen. 11:26; but a comparison of Gen. 11:32 and Acts 7:4 with Gen. 12:4 shows that when Terah died, at the age of two hundred and five years, Abraham was seventy-five years, and hence Terah must have been one hundred and thirty years when Abraham was born. Thus, including the two years from the Flood to the birth of Arphaxad, the period from the Flood to the birth of Abraham was three hundred and fifty-two years.

The next period is from the birth of Abraham to the Exodus. This, according to the Hebrew, extends to five hundred and five years. The difficulty here is as to the four hundred and thirty years mentioned Ex. 12:40, 41; Gal. 3:17. These years are regarded by some as dating from the covenant with Abraham (Gen. 15), which was entered into soon after his sojourn in Egypt; others, with more probability, reckon these years from Jacob’s going down into Egypt. (See EXODUS.)

In modern times the systems of Biblical chronology that have been adopted are chiefly those of Ussher and Hales. The former follows the Hebrew, and the latter the Septuagint mainly. Archbishop Ussher’s (died 1656) system is called the short chronology. It is that given on the margin of the Authorized Version, but is really of no authority, and is quite uncertain. See table:

System of Biblical Chronology

 

Ussher
B.C.

Hales
B.C.

Creation

4004

5411

Flood

2348

3155

Abram leaves Haran

1921

2078

Exodus

1491

1648

Destruction of the Temple

588

586

 

The Old Testament to the Death of Solomon—4004 B.C.-976 B.C.

B.C.

Events

4004

The creation

3874

Birth of Seth

3382

Birth of Enoch, the seventh from Adam

3317

Birth of Methuselah

3130

Birth of Lamech

3074

Death of Adam, aged 930 years

3017

Translation of Enoch in the 365th year of his age

2948

Birth of Noah

2348

Death of Methuselah, aged 969 years

2348

The deluge

2233

Dispersion of mankind; confusion of tongues at Babel

2126

Birth of Terah, Abram’s father

1998

Death of Noah, aged 950 years, 350 years after the flood

1996

Birth of Abram. He was 75 years old when his father Terah died

1922

Terah, with his family, leaves Ur of the Chaldees, and dwells in Haran

1921

Abram enters the land of Canaan

1913

Abram rescues Lot, who had been taken prisoner by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:4-20)

1910

Birth of Ishmael

1897

Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

1896

Isaac born, Abraham being 100 years old

1859

Sarah died at Hebron, in the 127th year of her age

1821

Abraham died, aged 175 years, 100 years after his entrance into the land of Canaan

1773

Ishmael died, aged 137 years

1760

Jacob fled into Mesopotamia to escape his brother’s rage

1739

Jacob returns to Canaan from Mesopotamia

1729

Joseph is sold to the Midianites

1716

Isaac died, aged 180 years

1715

Joseph made governor over the whole of Egypt

1708

The seven years of famine begin

1706

Jacob, with his family, goes down into Egypt

1689

Death of Jacob

1635

Joseph dies, aged 100 years

1571

Birth of Moses

1531

Moses flees into the land of Midian

1491

Moses returns to Egypt at the command of God

1491

Exodus

1451

Death of Miriam, Moses’s sister

1451

In the fifth month of this year Aaron dies on Mount Hor, aged 123 years

1451

In the twelfth month of this year, Moses dies on Mount Nebo, aged 120 years

1451

Entrance of the tribes into Canaan

1444

The first Sabbatical year. From hence the year of jubilee is to be reckoned

1444

The tabernacle set up in Shiloh, where it remained 328 years

1427

Joshua dies, aged 110 years. Then follows a period of anarchy and confusion. The people sink into idolatry, and are brought under subjection to Cushan, king of Mesopotamia, for 8 years

1400

Othniel, the first of the judges, delivers Israel. Israel continued to be governed by judges for about 450 years, to the time of Samuel

1091

Saul anointed king by Samuel

1085

David, the son of Jesse, born

1065

David anointed King (1 Sam. 16:13)

1055

Death of Saul at Gilboa

1055

David goes to Hebron, and is there anointed king by the men of Judah, and there he reigns 7 ½ years

1048

The captains and elders of all the tribes coming to Hebron anoint David as king over all Israel. Jerusalem now becomes the seat of his kingdom. Here he reigned 33 years

1023

Rebellion of Absalom

1015

Solomon anointed king by the command of his father David

1012

Solomon begins to build the temple, which was finished in 7 ½ years

1004

The temple dedicated at the Feast of Tabernacles

976

Death of Solomon, after reigning 40 years. The kingdom is now divided

 

The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel to the Close of the O.T.

Mutual Hostility—976 B.C.-918 B.C.


Kingdom of Judah


B.C.


Kingdom of Israel

Contemporaneous Persons and Events in Heathen Countries

Rehoboam

Son of Solomon and Naamah. Reigned 17 years.

976

Jeroboam

Son of Nebat. Reigned 22 years.
Prophet: Ahijah

 

Land invaded and Jerusalem plundered by Shishak, and Rehoboam made tributary (1 Kings 14:25, 26).
Prophets: Shemaiah and Iddo

973

 

Shishak

King of Egypt

Abijah or Abijam

Son of Rehoboam and Maachah. Reigned 3 years (1 Kings 15:1, 2)

959

 

 

Asa
(1 Kings 15:9)

Son of Abijah. Cushite invasion War with Zerah the Ethiopian (2 Chron. 14:9). Alliance with Ben-hadad I. (1 Kings 15:18). Reigned 41 years.
Prophets: Oded, Azariah, Hanani, and Jehu

955

Nadab
(1 Kings 15:25)

Son of Jeroboam. Murdered by Baasha, after a brief reign.

Osorkon II

(=probably Zerah)

King of Egypt, the invader of Judah (2 Chron. 14:9)

 

953

Baasha
(1 Kings 15:28)

Son of Ahijah of Issachar. He exterminated the entire house of Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:29-39; 15:29). Reigned 24 years.
Prophet: Jehu

Ben-hadad I

King of Syria

 

944

 

The poet Hesiod in Greece

 

931

Elah
(1 Kings 16:8)

Son of Baasha. Was assassinated, after reigning 2 years, by Zimri, one of his captains, who "destroyed all the house of Baasha" (1 Kings 16:11).

 

 

929

Zimri

Reigned only 7 days (1 Kings 16:10).

 

 

929

Omri

Civil war with Tibni for 4 years (1 Kings 16:21).

 

 

925

Omri

Reigned alone 6 years (1 Kings 16:23).

 

 

924

Samaria made capital
(1 Kings 16:24)

Invaded by the Syrians (1 Kings 20:34).

 

 

918

Ahab
(1 Kings 16:29, 31)

Son of Omri. He changed the state religion, and so "made a prodigious step downwards" by introducing the impure and debasing worship of the Phoenician gods. Reigned 22 years.
Prophets: Elijah and Micaiah

 

 

Alliance Between the Kingdoms, and Common Hostility to Syria—
(918 B.C. - 883 B.C.)


Kingdom of Judah


B.C.


Kingdom of Israel

Contemporaneous Persons and Events in Heathen Countries

 

918

Ahab
(1 Kings 16:29, 31)

Son of Omri. He changed the state religion, and so "made a prodigious step downwards" by introducing the impure and debasing worship of the Phoenician gods. Reigned 22 years.
Prophets: Elijah and Micaiah

 

Jehoshaphat
(1 Kings 22:41)

Son of Asa and Azubah. Joined "affinity with Ahab" (2 Chron. 18:1). Associated with him his son Jehoram, when 16 years of age, the two reigning conjointly for 8 years.
Prophets: Eliezer and Jahaziel

915

 

 

 

900

 

Homer flourished

 

900

Battle at Ramoth-gilead, in which Ahab was slain (1 Kings 22:37).

 

 

898

Ahaziah
(1 Kings 22:51, 52)

Son of Ahab. Reigned 2 years.
Prophet: Elisha

Lycurgus in Sparta

 

897

Jehoram or Joram

Son of Ahab (2 Kings 3:2). The last king of the house of Omri. War against Mesha (2 Kings 3:4-27). Was put to death by Jehu (2 Kings 9:1-23; comp. 1 Kings 21:21), after reigning 12 years.

 

Jehoram
(2 Kings 8:16; 2 Chron. 21:11-13)

Son of Jehoshaphat. His reign was one of the darkest and most unfortunate in Judean history (2 Chron. 21:12-20). Reigned as sole ruler 8 years.

892

 

 

Ahaziah

Youngest son of Jehoram and Athalia (2 Kings 8:25; 2 Chr. 22:1-3). Was put to death by Jehu (2 Kings 9:24; Comp. 2 Chr. 22:9), after reigning 1 year.

884

 

Hazael of Syria

 

Renewal of Mutual Hostilities, and Gradual Decline of Both Kingdoms
(883 B.C.-705 B.C.)


Kingdom of Judah


B.C.


Kingdom of Israel

Contemporaneous Persons and Events in Heathen Countries

Athaliah
(2 Kings 11:3)

Daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. Usurped the throne, and reigned 6 years. The last survivor of the house of Omri. Was put to death by Jehoiada.

883

Jehu
(2 Kings 10:36)

Son of Nimshi. With him began the most powerful and the longest lived of all the Israelite dynasties. Reigned 28 years.
Prophet: Jonah

 

Joash or Jehoash
(2 Kings 11:4; 12:1)

Son of Ahaziah and Zibia. Was slain on his sick-bed in the castle of Millo. Reigned 40 years.
Prophet: Joel

877

 

Pygmalion

King of Tyre.

 

869

 

Carthage founded by Dido, the Phoenician queen, 143 years after the building of the temple.

 

855

Jehoahaz
(2 Kings 13:1)

Eldest son of Jehu. Ravages of the Syrians. Reigned 17 years

 

Syrians invade Judah

840

 

 

 

839

Jehoash or Joash
(2 Kings 13:10)

Defeats the Syrians thrice. Conquers Judah. Reigned 16 years.

 

Amaziah
(2 Kings 14:1)

Son of Joash and Jehoaddan. Conquers Edom. Defeat at Beth-shemesh (2 Kings 14:13). Reigned 29 years.

838

Death of Elisha
(2 Kings 13:10)

Ben-hadad III.,

King of Syria

 

823

Jeroboam II
(2 Kings 14:23)

Son of Joash. The greatest of all the kings of Samaria. Reigned 41 years.

 

 

820

 

Empire of the Medes founded by Arbaces.

.

 

814

 

Kingdom of Macedon founded by Caranus

Uzziah or Azariah
(2 Kings 15:1, 2)

Son of Amaziah and Jecholiah. Reigned 52 years.
Prophet: Amos

809

 

 

 

784

Interregnum

A period of anarchy of 11 years and some months.
Prophet: Hosea

 

 

776

 

The Grecian era.

Computation by Olympiads, periods of 4 years, begins.

 

771

Zachariah
(2 Kings 15:8)

Son of Jeroboam II. Slain by Shallum. Reigned 6 months.

 

 

770

Shallum
(2 Kings 15:13)

Reigned 1 month.

Pul

King of Assyria

 

770

Menahem
(2 Kings 15:17)

Israel invaded by Pul. Menahem becomes a vassal of Assyria (2 Kings 15:19).

 

 

761

Pekahiah

Son of Menahem (2 Kings 15:23-26). Reigned 2 years.

 

 

759

Pekah
(2 Kings 15:27, 28)

Forms an alliance with Rezin. War with Judah. The kingdom attacked by Tiglath-pileser. Reigned 20 years.

 

Jotham
(2 Kings 15:32, 33)

Son of Uzziah and Jerusha. Reigned 16 years.
Prophets: Micah and Isaiah

758

 

 

 

752

 

Foundation of Rome

 

747

 

Nabonassar,
King of Babylon

Rezin,
King of Syria

Ahaz
(2 Kings 16:1)

Son of Jotham. The party in Jerusalem in favour of an alliance with Assyria predominates (2 Kings 16:7). Reigned 16 years.
Prophets: Isaiah and Oded.

742

 

Tiglath-pileser,
King of Assyria

 

740

Interregnum of 9 years

 

 

734

 

Syracuse founded.

 

730

Hoshea
(2 Kings 17:1)

Son of Elah. Enters into an alliance with So, King of Egypt. The last and best king of Israel. Reigned 9 years.

 

 

727

 

Shalmaneser IV.

Succeeds Tiglath-pileser, and besieges Samaria, making Hoshea tributary.

Hezekiah
(2 Kings 18:1)

Son of Ahaz and Abijah. The party in favour of an alliance with Egypt predominates till the defeat of Tirhakah at Eltekeh. From this time the views of Isaiah, who opposed all alliances with foreign powers, prevailed during the rest of Hezekiah’s reign.

First invasion of Judah by Sennacherib. Hezekiah submits. Renewed invasion. Destruction of Sennacherib’s army.

Hezekiah’s illness. Reigned 29 years.
Prophet: Isaiah

726

 

 

 

721

Fall of Samaria, Israel in exile in Assyria, and the land peopled by colonists from Assyria. Destruction of the commonwealth of Israel, after a separate existence of 253 years (2 Kings 18:10).

Sargon seizes the throne of Assyria, and takes Samaria, the siege of which was begun by Shalmaneser.
Merodach-baladan conquers Babylon.

First invasion of Judah by Sennacherib, Hezekiah submits. Renewed invasion. Destruction of Sennacherib’s army.

714

 

 

Hezekiah’s illness. Reigned 29 years.
Prophet: Isaiah

712

 

 

 

705

 

Sargon murdered, and succeeded by his son Sennacherib

 

Renewal of Mutual Hostilities, and Gradual Decline of Both Kingdoms
(697 B.C.-588 B.C.)

Kingdom of Judah

B.C.

Contemporaneous Persons and Events in Heathen Countries

Manasseh
(2 Kings 21:1)

Son of Hezekiah. Great national apostasy. Carried captive to Babylon (2 Chr. 33:11). His repentance and restoration. Reigned 55 years.
Prophets: Micah, Isaiah, and probably Nahum

697

 

 

681

Sennacherib murdered, and succeeded by his son Esarhaddon (2 Kings 19:37).

 

668-626

Assur-bani-pal

King of Assyria

 

666-612

Psammetichus I.

King of Egypt, was succeeded by his son Necho II.

Amon
(2 Kings 21:19)

Was murdered after a reign of 2 years.
Prophet: Nahum

642

 

Josiah
(2 Kings 22:1)

National revival of religion.

640-629

 

 

625

Fall of Nineveh.

Nabopolassar, father of Nebuchadnezzar, independent in Babylon.

Finding of the book of the law.

Slain at Megiddo. Reigned 31 years.
Prophets: Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, and Huldah.

621

 

 

612-596

Necho II,

King of Egypt

Jehoahaz or Shallum
(1 Chr. 3:15)

Josiah’s third son. "Did evil in the sight of the Lord." Reigned 3 months when he was deposed by Necho, who took him to Egypt (2 Kings 23:33).

609

Necho II, on his way to assail the Babylonians at Carchemish, encountered and defeated the army of Josiah near Megiddo (q.v.). Josiah was fatally wounded (2 Chr. 35:24), and Palestine became tributary to Egypt.

Jehoiakim or Eliakim

Josiah’s second son. Made king by Necho (2 Kings 23:36). Judah becomes tributary to Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:1).

609

 

Commencement of the 70 years’ captivity.

606

Nebuchadnezzar overcame the powerful army of the Egyptians, under Necho II., at Carchemish (Jer. 46:8-21), on the Middle Euphrates. Syria and Palestine now became tributary to Babylon (2 Kings 24:1). Daniel and other noble and royal youths are taken captive to Babylon.

Jehoiakim, despite the warnings of Jeremiah, rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, who marched at the head of a large army into Syria and besieged Jerusalem. Jehoiakim was put to death, and Jehoiachin was placed on the throne by Nebuchadnezzar.

602

 

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah)

Being suspicious of Jehoiachin’s loyalty, Nebuchadnezzar led an army against Jerusalem and plundered it, carrying away many captives (2 Kings 24:10-16), among whom were the king and all his household. He placed Mattaniah on the vacant throne, giving him the name of Zedekiah. Second conquest of Jerusalem. Reigned 3 months.

599

 

Mattaniah (Zedekiah)

He rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, his suzerain, and formed an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt (2 Kings 24:20; Jer. 44:30; Ezek. 17:15). Nebuchadnezzar came "with all his host" against Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:1). Egypt proved again for the Jews a "bruised reed" (2 Kings 18:21), and failed to help them. Jerusalem was besieged for a year and a half, and was visited with dire distress, famine, and pestilence. The defenses of the city gave way, and the Babylonian army entered it. The doomed city drank the cup of God’s fury to the dregs. The king and all his followers were taken captive and brought to Riblah. There his son was put to death in his presence, and his own eyes were then put out, and he became a captive in Babylon to the day of his death. (Jer. 52:11). The second captivity. Reigned 11 years.
Prophet: Ezekiel

599

 

 

596-591

Psammetichus II,
King of Egypt

 

594

Solon at Athens.

 

591-572

Hophra,
King of Egypt

Gedaliah

Appointed governor by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 25:22). Was killed by Ishmael. Jerusalem destroyed. Many of the people carried captive to Babylon. The third captivity. The rest fled to Egypt (2 Kings 25:26). Judah lies desolate (2 Chr. 36:21; Zech. 7:14)

588

 

 

Palestine
(562 B.C.-332 B.C.)

Palestine

B.C.

Contemporaneous Persons and Events in Heathen Countries

 

562

Nebuchadnezzar dies, after a reign of 43 years and is succeeded by his son Evil-merodach.

 

558

Media and Persian united into one kingdom under Cyrus.

 

559

Neriglissar

(probably = Nergal-sharezer)
Nebuchadnezzar’s son-in-law, succeeds Evil-merodach.

 

555

Nabonidus

the last king of Babylon.

Belshazzar

his son, latterly associated with him as king. Belshazzar commanded at Babylon while his father Nabonidus took the field against Cyrus.

 

538

During the siege of Babylon by Cyrus, Belshazzar made a great feast, and that night the city was taken, and Belshazzar was slain, the empire passing to the Medes and Persians. Then Darius the Mede "took the kingdom," Cyrus making him governor of the Medo-Persian empire, with the title of King. Daniel cast into the den of lions.

Palestine becomes a province of the Persian empire. Return of the first caravan "of the children of the province"—i.e., of Judea—under Zerubbabel, whom Cyrus made tirshatha or governor of Judea. Only about 50,000 Jews returned on this occasion..

536

Cyrus’s first year, on the death of Darius. Issues his edict in favour of the Jewish captives (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-5; comp. Isa 44:28)

Rebuilding of the temple begun

535

 

Daniel sees the vision recorded in ch. 10-12. The Samaritans oppose the building of the temple.

534

 

 

529

Tarquinius Superbus at Rome. Ahasuerus (Cambyses, Cyrus’s son) succeeds Cyrus as king of Persia (Ezra 4:6)

Building of the temple suspended

521

 

Zerubbabel and Jeshua renew the building in the second year of Darius, roused thereto by the Prophets Haggai and Zechariah

520

 

Darius discovers and re-enacts Cyrus’s decree

519

 

 

516

Babylon was destroyed by Darius Hystaspes

The temple completed and dedicated in the sixth year of Darius

515

 

 

490

Battle of Marathon

 

486

Xerxes I.

(Ahasuerus of Esther)

 

483

In the third year of his reign, he holds a great assembly previous to his invasion of Greece, and divorces Queen Vashti. Probably not till after his return from the disastrous invasion did he marry Hadassa (Esther)

 

480

Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis

The Jews are under Persian governors.

479

Battle of Platea.

Sea-flight of Mycale.

 

478

Esther made queen.

 

466

Xerxes slain by two of his courtiers; succeeded by his son Artaxerxes (Longimanus).

Ezra obtains a commission from Artaxerxes (Longimanus), and leads a second company of exiles back to Jerusalem (Ezra 7:8).

457

 

Nehemiah, cupbearer of Artaxerxes, appointed governor of Jerusalem. Is opposed by Sanballat and Tobiah.

446

 

Nehemiah returns to Persia

433

 

Nehemiah revisits Jerusalem, and reforms many abuses.

432

 

 

431

Peloponnesian War begins

 

423

Socrates, Xenophon, and Thucydides at Athens.

Death of Nehemiah.

413

 

Ezra and the Great Synagogue, including the Prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, probably gathered together the several books which form the Old Testament canon.

397

 

 

354

Demosthenes

Temple built on Gerizim by the Samaritans

332

Alexander the Great takes the city of Tyre.

 

Chronology According to the Assyrian Inscriptions
(858 B.C. - 606 B.C.)

The following dates, as given by Sayce from the Assyrian Inscriptions, may be compared with those in Ussher’s Chronology—

B.C.

Events

858-823

Shalmaneser II., King of Assyria, succeeded his father Assur-natsir-pal. His long reign was one continuous history of campaigns against his neighbours, his chief object of attack being the growing power of Damascus.

853

Ahab, son of Omri, as ally of Damascus against Shalmaneser (1 Kings 20:34). In the time of Ahab the Assyrians first became acquainted with the kingdom of Israel. Samaria was ever afterwards called by them Beth-Omri "the house of Omri."

851

Death of Ahab.

850

Shalmaneser’s campaign against the Syrian king Hadadezer (=Ben-hadad II.)

845

Shalmaneser’s second campaign against Hadadezer.

843

Hadadezer murdered by Hazael, king of Syria (2 Kings 13:22).

843

Shalmaneser again sent his troops against "Hazael of the country of Damascus," and captured four of his cities, after which he captured four of his cities, after which he made no further incursions into the west.

841

Jehu pays tribute to Assyria.

840

Shalmaneser’s campaign against Hazael proved disastrous to the Syrians.

823

Samas-Rimmon II. succeeded his father Shalmaneser II> on the Assyrian throne.

810-781

Rimmon-nirari, grandson of Shalmaneser, ascended the throne.

804

Damascus taken by the Assyrians and reduced to a condition of Vassalage.

781

Shalmaneser III. Ascends the throne of Assyria.

773

Assyrian campaign against Damascus.

771

Assur-dan III. Becomes king of Assyria.

756

Jotham made regent with his father Uzziah.

753

Assur-nirari king of Assyria.

745

The first Assyrian empire came to an end "partly from internal decay, partly through the attacks of its Armenian neighbours. The last representative (Assur-nirari) of the old dynasty died or was slain in the same year. Pulu (Pul), a military captain of obscure origin, seized the vacant throne." He founded the second Assyrian empire, taking the name of Tiglath-pileser (III.), after the name of one of the most famous monarchs of the older dynasty some four centuries before.

743-740

Tiglath-pileser II. Wars against Hamath. Submission of Uzziah.

742

Uzziah sends help to Hamath.

741

Death of Jotham and accession of Ahaz.

738

Azariah (=Uzziah) defeated by Tiglath-pileser, who exacts tribute from Menahem of Samaria and Rezin of Damascus.

734

Damascus besieged by the Assyrians. The tribes beyond Jordan are carried away captive. Jehoahaz of Judah becomes a vassal of Tiglath-pileser.

732

Damascus taken and Rezin slain.

729

Pekah put to death. Hoshea ascends the throne.

728

Ulula of Tinu, a usurper, takes the name of Shalmaneser (IV.) (2 Kings 17:3), and ascends the Assyrian throne.

723

Samaria besieged by Shalmaneser V. The siege lasted three years.

722

On the death of Shalmaneser one of his captains, a soldier of fortune, seized the vacant throne, and took the name of Sargon.

721

Merodach-baladan of Chaldea conquers Babylon.

712-711

Embassy sent by Merodach-baladan to Hezekiah with the view of exciting trouble in the west, so as to divide the forces of Sargon, who was now threatening an invasion of Babylonia. The illness of Hezekiah was only the pretext for this embassy.

711

Capture of Jerusalem and Ashdod by Sargon.

705

Sennacherib, Sargon’s son, king of Assyria.

701

Sennacherib’s disastrous campaign against Judah.

697

Death of Hezekiah, and accession of his son Manasseh. The name of "Manasseh king of Judah" twice occurs on the Assyrian monuments.

691

Babylon razed to the ground by Sennacherib.

681

Sennacherib murdered, and was succeeded by his son Esarhaddon, who rebuilt Babylon, and sought to win over the Babylonians by residing in it during half the year.

676

Manasseh appears among the Assyrian tributaries.

668

Esarhaddon dies, and is succeeded by his son Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos).

665

Destruction of Thebes (="No Amon"=Ni of the Inscriptions) by the Assyrians. This city was "swept like a deluge" because Egypt, under Urduman, son of Tirhakah, had revolted from Assyria (Nah. 3:8, 10).

609

Josiah of Judah, in the name of his suzerain, "the king of Assyria," opposed the march of Pharaoh. He was slain in battle (2 Kings 23:29).

606(?)

Fall of Nineveh, Esarhaddon II. (Sarakos) being the last king. "The bloody city" became a heap of ruins. "The Assyrian empire vanished from the earth, and its very existence soon became little more than a name. The Oriental ground over which it had tyrannized became the fighting ground of three rival powers—the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the so-called Medes" (Sayce).

 

Between the Testaments—331 B.C.-4 B.C.

From the death of Nehemiah to the fall of the Medo-Persian empire before the Macedonian little is known of the Jews. The high priest were practically the rulers of the people. They were assisted by a council of one hundred and twenty members, called the Great Synagogue. The royal house of David sank into oblivion, prophecy was suspended, and the Jews gradually became more and more exclusive and austere, both religiously and socially.

The Hellenistic Domination

B.C.

Event

331-167

Alexander the Great defeated Darius (Codomannus) and founded the Macedonian empire—the Greek empire in Asia

323

Death of Alexander the Great at Babylon

323

Alexander’s four generals (the diadochi) divide his empire between them. Palestine becomes a part of Syria

301-221

Judea is annexed to Egypt when the Graeco-Egyptian kingdom is founded, and the Jews come under the dominion of the Ptolemies. The Jews are scattered over the heathen world.

291

The Old Testament began to be translated into Greek by learned Jews in Alexandria for the use of the African Jews. The translation was probably completed during the next century. It is called the Septuagint (q.v.) Version

219

Antiochus III., the Great, overruns Palestine

217

Ptolemy IV. Of Egypt recovers Palestine

205

The Jews submit to Antiochus the Great

197

Antiochus the Great defeats the Egyptians, and Palestine becomes a part of the Graeco-Syrian kingdom

175

Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes) usurps the Graeco-Syrian throne

170-167

Antiochus cruelly persecutes the Jews, ordering all his subjects on pain of death to adopt the Graeco-Syrian religion and customs

The Period of the Maccabees and the Ashmonaean Kings

166

A band of patriotic Jews, headed by Matthias the Ashmonaean, rebel against the tyranny of Antiochus

164

Antiochus dies at Tabae in Persia, being stricken with a loathsome disease (compare Acts 12:23), which he recognizes as a judgment sent upon him for his treatment of the Jews

143

After a period of varying success, the Maccabean commonwealth, introducing the era of Jewish independence, is established

106-65

The Ashmonaean kings rule over Judea

63

Pompey annexes Syria to Rome, and Judea becomes from this time a Roman dependency

47

Julius Caesar appoints Antipater, son of Antipas, an Idumaean chief, first procurator of Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, and henceforward the Herodian family supplants the Ashmonaean

41

Antipater makes his son Herod joint (with his brother Phasael) tetrarch of Judea and Galilee

The Herodian Kingdom

37

Herod the Great takes Jerusalem, and becomes the founder of the Herodian kingdom. End of the Ashmonaean line

31

Battle of Actium

30

Egypt becomes a Roman province, and is the chief seat of the Jewish Dispersion

27

Herod rebuilds Samaria, and attempts to introduce among the Jews Greek and Roman customs

B.C. 27-A.D. 14

Augustus emperor of Rome

B.C. 22

Herod founds the Graeco-Roman city and port of Caesarea

20

Erects a temple to Augustus at Paneas

18

Begins the rebuilding of the temple

10

Building of Caesarea finished. It is dedicated to Augustus

5

Birth of John the Baptist

4

Birth of our Lord, as now generally received. Death of Herod the Great at Jericho. Archelaus becomes king in his stead

 

The New Testament History—4 B.C.-A.D. 98

Palestine

B.C.

Rome

Nativity of Christ.

4

Cyrenius (Quirinus) prefect (legatus) of Syria—the first time (Luke 2:2)

Antipater murdered by his father

2

 

 

A.D.

 

Nativity of Christ, according to Tertulian and Eusebius

1

 

Judea become a Roman province, and is annexed to the province of Syria

6

 

Jesus at the age of twelve visits the temple

8

Cyrenius again legatus of Syria. Completes the "taxing" (Acts 5:37)

 

14

Tiberius succeeds Augustus

Caiaphas made high priest

17

 

Pontius Pilate fifth procurator

26

 

John the Baptist imprisoned and be-headed by Herod Antipas

30

 

Crucifixion of our Lord. The Pentecostal effusion

33

 

Martyrdom of Stephen. Conversion of Saul of Tarsus

36

 

Herod Agrippa I. Succeeded his uncle Herod Philip II. in the tetrarchy of Trachonitis and Ituraea

37

Death of Tiberius. Accession of Caligula

Saul’s first visit to Jerusalem (Gal. 1:18). Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, deposed and banished. Was succeeded by Herod Agrippa

40

 

Herod Agrippa I. gained Judea and Samaria. Conversion of Cornelius

41

Death of Caligula. Accession of Claudius

The first Gentile church at Antioch

43

 

Herod Agrippa I., king of Judea and Samaria, be-headed James (Zebedee’s son)—Acts 12:2, 23. Herod Agrippa dies at Caesarea (Acts. 12:1, 6, 11, 19, 23)

44

 

Paul’s first missionary journey (about 3 years)—Acts 13-14. "Saul, who is also called Paul" (Acts 13:9)

47

 

Council at Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-35). The epistle of the council to the Gentile Christians in Syria and Cilicia is probably the oldest written document of the Christian church.

50

 

Felix procurator. Paul’s second missionary journey (more than 3 years)—Acts 15:36—18:23

51

 

Wrote from Corinth the epistles to the Thessalonians (1 Thess. 1:7, 8; Acts 18:5)

52

Decree of Claudius banishing the Jews from Rome

 

54-68

Nero emperor, successor of Claudius

Paul’s third missionary journey (about 4 years)—Acts 18:23-21:14

54

 

During his stay at Ephesus (Acts 19) wrote epistle to the Galatians (Acts 20:2; Gal 6:11), and probably First Corinthians (1 Cor 16:8)

57 or 58

 

Wrote from Macedonia Second Corinthians (2 Cor. 1:23; 7:5)

57

 

Wrote from Corinth epistle to Romans at close of his stay there (Acts 20:3; 1 Cor. 16:6)

58

 

Paul visits Jerusalem. Is brought before Felix, and imprisoned for two years at Caesarea (Acts 21:17-26)

58

 

Paul before the procurator Porcius Festus. Is sent a prisoner to Rome

60

 

Arrives at Rome in spring of

61

 

Paul writes from Rome his epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and the Philippians, and probably Hebrews

61-63

 

Paul probably released

63

 

Paul’s movements after his release are uncertain. Some think that at Corinth he wrote the First Epistle to Timothy and the Epistle to Titus.

64

Great fire at Rome. First general persecution of the Christians

Arrested at Ephesus, and sent prisoner to Rome.

65

 

Wrote Second Epistle to Timothy from Rome. Was martyred (?)

66

 

Others think that Paul wrote First Epistle to Timothy from Macedonia, and the Epistle to Titus from Ephesus, and that he spent the winter of this year at Nicopolis, where he was taken prisoner and sent to Rome, whence he wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy. Suffered martyrdom (?)

67

 

 

68

Nero killed by his secretary, Epaphroditus, "in the thirtieth year of his age and in the fourteenth of his reign."

 

69

Vespasian emperor

Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, the Roman general

70

 

John probably writes his Gospel and Epistles

80-90

 

 

91

Titus emperor

John writes the book of Revelation

95

Domitian emperor

 

96

Second general persecution of Christians

 

97

Nerva emperor

Death of John

98

Trajan emperor